Thursday, February 19, 2009

Rotary Steerable System (RSS)

What is a Rotary steerable system (RSS)?
It permits downhole directional control whilst continuously drilling in rotary mode. At present, three classes of rotary steerable system exist:

  • fully steerable systems, allowing down hole control of both inclination and azimuth;
  • semi steerable systems, providing down hole control of inclination only (adjustable stabilizers)
  • vertical drilling systems, that actively seek vertical
The aim of this document is to provide information on:
  • the experience to date of rotary steerable systems
  • available rotary steerable;
  • technical, cost and usage data; and
  • the perceived benefits and drawbacks of these systems
Advantages of RSS over conventional mud motor techniques
Firstly, due to the elimination of the need for slide drilling:
  • Improved ROP, reducing drilling time;
  • Improved hole cleaning / lower ECD;
  • Reduced torque and drag, giving greater reach for ERD wells;
  • Reduced axial stick / slip problems.
It is also believed that rotary steerable systems give:
  • Smoother well bore, requiring less reaming;
  • More controllable build rates;
  • Improved bit life.
Types of wells that may benefit from rotary steerable technology include:
  • ERD wells that are beyond current comfort zones;
  • Designer wells where sliding limits achievable targets;
  • Deep, hot, directional wells where motors have problems;
  • High build rate, small diameter re-entry work;
  • Wells where slide drilling causes high ECD's / well bore stability problems;
  • Vertical wells where directional control is difficult;
  • Deep wells to reduce torque and drag generated at surface

Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Things to take note to prevent e-auction fraud when a consumer participating in an e-auction

Auction is market mechanism by which buyers make bids and sellers place offers. It is characterized by the competitive and dynamic nature by which the final price is reached. Auctions can rapidly disposal of items that needs liquidation or a quick sale, they offer trading opportunities for both buyers and sellers that are not available in conventional channels and they ensure cautious execution of contracts. There are few types of auction that are traditional auction, electronic auction, dynamic pricing, English auction, Dutch auction, free-fall auction, sealed-bid first price auctionm, sealed-bid second price auction

The most popular is electronic auction that is e-auction which means conduct auctions online. The largest Internet auctioneer is eBay which has introduced several measures in an effort to reduce fraud.

User Identity Verification
For example, verified eBay user, the voluntary program, encourages users to supply eBay with information for online verification such as identity card number or date of birth.

Authentication Service
It is to determine whether an item is genuine and described appropriately. It difficult to perform because their training and experience, experts can detect counterfeits based on subtle detail.

Feedback Forum
It allows buyers and sellers to build up their online trading reputations. It provides user with ability to comment on their experiences with other.

Non-payment Punishments
It is to protect the sellers, a friendly warning for first-time nonpayment. A sterner warning is for second-time offense, with a 30 day suspension for a third offense and an indefinite suspension for a fourth offense.

Item Verification
It is a way of confirm he identity and evaluate the condition of an item. Third parties will evaluate and identify an item through a variety of means. For example, some collectors have their item “DNA tagged” for identification purpose. It provides a way of tracking an item if it charges ownership in future.

Monday, February 16, 2009

E-Government in Malaysia: Its Implementation So Far and Citizen's Adoption Strategies

The Electronic Government initiative in Malaysia was launched to lead the country into the Information Age. It has improved both how the government operates internally as well as how it delivers services to the people of Malaysia. It seeks to improve the convenience, accessibility and quality of interactions with citizens and businesses; simultaneously, it will improve information flows and processes within government to improve the speed and quality of policy development, coordination and enforcement.
Malaysia government has successfully implement the e-government. One of the most successful application are e-filling.E-filling is a method of filing of all income documents of tax payer in Malaysia, that uses an electronic format rather than a traditional paper format, from office or home through Internet. To use this services, taxpayers need to make a tax registration. Malaysia's Inland Revenue Board (IRB) will send the PIN for online tax registration through mail to the taxpayers.However, there are some problems faced in e-government implementation:
Language barrier - Most of the government websites using Bahasa Malaysia.
Technological barrier - Lack of technical infrastructure.
Online behaviour - Malaysians remain sceptical on being distrust on electronic transaction especially on online banking buying from an Internet store.
Lack of public awareness - Public are not aware of the services offered.
Ways to encourage more citizens to use the e-government applications:
Provide websites with multiple language version.
Increase awareness through TV and radio advertisements, and organising workshops at shopping malls.
Provide consultation services on how to use those services.
Simplify procedures needed to access to the e-government services.

Saturday, February 14, 2009

Review a local e-commerce site (Malaysia) --->

AirAsia Airline is the famous airline in Malaysia. is a virtual e-commerce site. It allows you to browse, search, as well as book tickets, online.

In the, the main colour of the site is red. The purposes are to emphasis the webpage and make the website become more attractive. On the Home page, it shows various location and language which will convenient customers from different country and this might lead more customers to visit and book its tickets.

The search engine had been provided by this site which allows us to search for destination fright tickets that we need. The page load speed is also very fast.In the, people can easily search for the information by clicking on the relevant navigation. We can choose the tickets correctly or clearly based on information provided in example, fright time, price, tax charges and others.
After you had decided which fright to book, you just click “next” icon. However, before you can go futher, you must login first. If you are a new customer, fill in details by clicking "sign-in" link. Then, it will bring you to booking page. then follow step by step until payment, you can choose either pay by credit card or debit card.
Besides, also have other related link such as which allow you to book hotel as well.
In conclusion, is an success e-commerce site which is user friendly and the site overall design and layout of the MPH also very nice and well-organized. The most important is it make you easy to fright.

Friday, February 13, 2009

Corporate Blogging: A New Marketing Communication Tool for Companies

Currently ,corporate blogging is being used as a new marketing communication tool for companies. A corporate weblog is published and used by an organization to reach its organizational goals. The advantage of blogs is that posts and comments are easy to reach and follow due to centralized hosting and generally structured conversation threads. According to the Wikipedia website, there are some major browsers (including Firefox, Opera, Safari and Internet Explorer 7) support RSS technology, which enables readers to easily read recent posts without actually visiting the blog, which is very useful for low-volume blogs.
Certain corporate blogs have a very high number of subscribers. The official Google Blog is currently in the Technorati top 50 listing among all blogs worldwide.
Marketers might expect to have product evangelists or influencers among the audience of an external blog. Once they find them, they may treat them like VIPs, asking them for feedback on exclusive previews, product testing, marketing plans, customer services audits, etc.
The business blog can provide additional value by adding a level of credibility that is often unobtainable from a standard corporate site. The informality and increased timeliness of information posted to blogs assists with increasing transparency and accessibility in the corporate image. Business blogs can interact with a target market on a more personal level while building link credibility that can ultimately be tied back to the corporate site.

Thursday, February 12, 2009

The application of pre-paid cash card for consumer

What is pre-paid cash card ?
A prepaid cash card allows consumers to purchase something even when they don’t have the cash to pay for it. It benefits consumers in their everyday life. Though it works almost the same like a credit card, a prepaid cash card is different because it allows consumers to have a better control over their finance.

How prepaid cash card function ?

First thing, load the amount of money you want onto the prepaid cash card. That will be your spending limit. For any purchases transaction, the sum will be subtracted from the card balance. You can always pump in more money when the balance runs low by transferring money from your regular checking or savings account.

Pre-paid cash card advantages

  1. Having a prepaid cash card is certainly quick and easy. Transaction can be made just within a minute. All you have to do is hand swap your card on the counter, sign on the receipt and collect your card and a copy of the receipt. Done.
  2. Consumers can plan how much they want to spend in advance. Thus, spending is controlled by how much one has in the account. In a way, prepaid cash cards give consumers a better alternative in keeping record of your spending.
  3. Having a prepaid cash card is surely safer than carrying cash. Prepaid cash card protect consumers from unauthorized transactions even when the card is stolen or lost. Plus, these cards can also be replaced once it is stolen or lost. Unlike cash, once it’s lost, it’s gone. Forever.
  4. Prepaid cash cards are always convenient all the time. It can be used at just anywhere anytime. Consumers can use it at their groceries shopping, petrol filling, utilities payment, movie tickets, airline tickets, download songs online, mobile phone bill, fast food or restaurant and even online shopping or any online payment!
Example of pre-paid cash card ---> Touch ‘n Go card Touch ‘n Go card is a prepaid smartcard that uses Mifare contactless technology.Information contain in this card can be read and written via magnetic induction using specified radio frequency and smartcard software.Each time a user uses the Touch ‘n Go card, the electronic card reader will deduct the exact fare from the value stored inside the card. Touch ‘n Go card can be used at all highways in Malaysia, major public transports in Klang Valley, selected parking sites and Theme Park. Touch ‘n Go uses contactless smartcard technology. The card looks similar to a credit card. User can continue using the card as long as it is pre-loaded with electronic cash. Touch ‘n Go enhances the speed of paying for low value but high frequency transactions. We also can use it at some retail outlet such as Fast Foods restaurants (e.g A&W, Burger King and Dunkin Donurt), Convenience stores (e.g 7-eleven, Cartex Star Mart), Hypermarkets (e.g Carefour), and Cinema (e.g Cathay Cineleisure).

Tuesday, February 10, 2009

Causes and Preventions of Credit Card Debts

Most of the time, we cannot endure the temptation of the convenience that credit cards provide. The credit card companies always do not want us to pay off the credit card debts, why they do so? The reason is just the interest is the lifeblood of the company, the more credit card debt we have, the more interest we must pay. We always forget the budget to spend when we making payment by using credit card.
The fastest way we get into credit difficulties is by not repaying the minimum payment required; we called this as missing payments. This will result in the card being refused at retailers until the payment is made. We can set up a Direct Debit for the minimum amount and pay off as much of the remaining balance as possible to keep the debt low. Normally, spending on credit card is borrowing money that is a debt that must be repaid at some point. The smart card holders will only spend on what they can afford and won’t overspend.
Another thing may cause credit card debt is holding a fistful of cards. It is because the more cards we hold, it may cause us to spend more and more and may be overspending. So, we might never hold more than eight cards at any one time, as this will adversely affect the credit ratings. We should clear any outstanding balances and cancel the cards that are no longer used. It can also reduce the risk that our cards be stolen.
There are some tips to help us to prevent credit card debts:
• Never heavy rely on credit card. When you can, remember always use cash to make payment, no credit, no debt.
• Move debts to the lowest interest rate available. Remember, a card holder with a good credit rating can always ring and ask the credit card company for a lower rate at any time.
• Pay your debt on time. Remember, you must pay your bill on time, don’t let them have the chance to charge you interest in late payment.
• Negotiate with the credit card companies. Sometimes, if you pay the credit card debt late only one or two days, can always try to negotiate to the company for postpone the payment by not charging interest.

Know more, refers to

Monday, February 9, 2009

Electronic Currency

The Electronic Currency Trading System (ECTS)

ECTS is an electronic currency trading investment platform that offers its clients an efficient way to trade foreign currencies against the strength and weakness of the US dollar. Utilizing its database of historical price patterns and technical indicators, the complex algorithms interwoven into the system allow for the recognition of entry positions with maximum profit potential.

In order to maintain prudent money management, 24-hour stops are put in place to lock in gains as well as prevent heavy losses. There has never been a better time to invest in currency trading than right now

ECTS has had a remarkable trading session since January 1st of 2008. The current market conditions with the fluxuating US dollar have created volatile trading conditions that are advantageous to ECTS. There has never been a better opportunity to take advantage of the best currency trading system in the US today.

The advantages are numerous and here are just a few.

* Anyone can learn currency trading it’s a specifically learned skill.
* You can learn to trade in around a couple of weeks
* You can trade for big profits in less than 30 minutes a day
* You don’t need much money and you only need a computer and an internet connection
* You have the opportunity to trade for profits everyday
* There is never a recession because as one currency rises another must fall
* You can use leverage to increase your risk reward
* You have low transaction costs which means you keep more of the profits

Electronic currency trading offers you a host of advantages but many of these can be disadvantages to and you need to be careful before you open an online trading account.

Mobile Payment System in Malaysia ; Its Potentials and Consumer Adoption Strategies.

Mobile payment is the collection of money from a consumer via a mobile device such as their mobile phone, SmartPhone, Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) or other such device. In other words, this is a concept of making payment transactions just through a mobile device to pay for goods and services

There are four primary models for mobile payments:
Premium SMS based transactional payments
Direct Mobile Billing
Mobile web payments (
NFC (Near Field Communication)

In Malaysia, mobile payment is effective providing customers with admission or money off vouchers which can be unique coded or designed to allow viral spread. The mobile channel can be effectively used as a self-funding and revenue generating medium. This service covers all mobile operators on Malaysia such as Mobile Wallet.
Mobile Wallet is a mobile enabled application and payment service provider which enables its network of users/subscribers to make convenient payments to any designated affiliates or Mobile Wallet’s appointed network of merchants to accept MW points as mobile based payment gateway.

Indeed, mobile payment services have its own potential. Consumers are more comfortable with low-value transactions over such non-traditional means. Common applications will include payment for transportation, parking, restaurants, convenience stores, retail outlets, e-tickets to name a few - typically for low-value items. This helps especially when consumers are in need of cash but doesn’t have any in hand and provides users the convenience to pay anyone, anytime and anywhere.


Malaysia Online Payment

Saturday, February 7, 2009

The threat of online security:How safe is our data?

Nowadays, people rely on computers to create, store and manage critical information. However, the increasingly developed technologies sarcastically increase the risk every computer user faced. Everyone who owns a computer with internet connection is able to equip themselves with ‘hacking’ knowledge by making some research online. Internet provides the opportunities for users to share the knowledge without filtering the content. Therefore, everyone can learn skills that may jeopardize online security via internet and therefore increase the online security risk.

Nowadays, computer users are facing the threats of cybercrime, phishing, internet and network attacks such as computer viruses, worms and Trojan horses and back doors. Everyone who owns a computer with internet connection is able to equip themselves with ‘hacking’ knowledge by making some research online. Internet provides the opportunities for users to share the knowledge without filtering the content. Therefore, everyone can learn skills that may jeopardize online security via internet and therefore increase the online security risk.

Cyber attacks or vulnerabilities fall under several general categories: I. Accidental actions
II. Malicious attacks
i. Computer viruses
ii. Denial of service attacks
iii. Distributed denial of service attacks
III. Online fraud
i. Identity theft
ii. Data theft

In conclusion, risk exposed by computer users is increasing with the increasing developed technology. Therefore, safeguards developed must be always up to date to enhance the defenses against online security threats. In the same time, users must be educated and informed about the crucial damages and loss caused by imposing online security threats.

The application of 3rd party certification programme in Malaysia ---> MSC Sdn Bhd

Third parties are called certificate authorities (CAs),
who issue digital certificate to provide verification that your website does indeed represent your company. The most famous application of 3rd party certification program in Malaysia is provided by the MSC Sdn Bhd. MSC Sdn Bhd is a licensed Certification Authority (CA) operating within the Multimedia Super Corridor. MSC Trustgate was incorporated in 1999 to meet the growing need for secure open network communications and become the catalyst for the growth of e-commerce, both locally and across the ASEAN region. At present, MSC Trustgate has 12 million in paid up capital. Trustgate is licensed under the Digital Signature Act 1997 (DSA), a Malaysia law that sets a global precedent for the mandate of a CA. As a CA, Trustgate’s core business is to provide digital certification services, including digital certificates, cryptographic products, and software development. MSC Sdn Bhd is committed to provide the finest Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) to assist all types of companies and institutions conducting their business over the Internet. The state of the art back-end infrastructure that costs RM 14 million is one of the best in the region. The objective of MSC Trustgate is to secure the open network communications from both locally and across the ASEAN region. Trustgate provide digital certification services such as digital certificates, cryptographic products and software development. The products and services of Trustgate are SSL Certificate, Managed PKI, Personal ID, MyTRUST, MyKAD ID, SSL VPN, Managed Security Services, VeriSign Certified Training and Application Development. They offers complete security solutions for individuals, organizations, government, and e-commerce service providers by digital certificates, encryption and decryption. Such as, they can provide e-mail protection and validation, secure online shopping carts and more services in order to avoid being spammed, hacked and attacked by the macilious software such as virus, trojan horse and worms. The vision of Trustgate is to enable organizations to conduct their business securely over the internet, as much as what they have been enjoying in the physical world. One of products and services of MSC Trustgate ---> Verisign Certified Training Verisign Certified Training enabling the security of e-commerce, communications, and interactions for Web sites, intranets, and extranets. Other security courses available include Watermarking and Wireless hacking, sniffing, penetration testing through tools. All IT professionals who are involved in designing, evaluating, or implementing Internet security are encouraged to attend.

MSC Trustgate

Friday, February 6, 2009

Examples of Phishing and Its Prevention Methods

Phishing is the process of fooling a consumer into divulging personal information, such as credit card numbers or passwords, usually by sending an email carefully constructed to appear as if it's from a bank or other trusted entity, such as PayPal. Sometimes, we will receive fake emails that send by the person who claim that they are the representative of the bank to alert the customers to update their personal information due to reconstructions, systems upgrade and update of security system. This is to reveal the users personal information such as account number. Below is an example of phishing.

PayPal Example

ebay Example

Day after day, computer users are bombarded with an increasing number of phishing-based emails and attacks. However, there are few ways to prevent them. The users should always be wary of any email requesting personal information, don’t reply to any suspicious looking emails or click on any links that you're unsure of. For example, if you receive an email from Ebay requesting personal information such as your user name or password, visit Ebay directly by typing into your browser to check on your account status. Many times, phishers will include a link leading to a fake website, possibly with a similar name like that gives them full access to your sensitive information. Besides, do not use your email address on online forms that may appear to be suspicious. Doing so may cause you to be the recipient of hundreds of other phishing scams. This is just because of the people like to set up a websites to collect email addresses for the sole purpose of selling them to spammers who are willing to pay for a fresh set of target addresses. Then you also must avoid the emails with urgent requests for financial, account, or email information. Beside of that, you can use antivirus and firewall software and keep them up to date using their Update features. A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access from a remote computer system. Antivirus and firewall software are very important because there are millions of existing viruses and new ones created everyday. Some of them have the potential to spread identity stealing programs. There really is no excuse to be without an antivirus or firewall. Many are free and are comparably as effective as many of the pay-per-license versions. Another way to prevent phishing is to make sure to carefully review your bank statements to check for unauthorized transactions. Many credit card companies have identity protection features that will reimburse you for charges made by an attacker, so long as they are promptly identified.


Thursday, February 5, 2009

How to Safeguard Your Personal and Financial data

In our digital age, it’s becoming increasingly hard not to share your personal data, such as passwords, bank account numbers, credit card numbers. Most companies prefer doing everything online for financial reasons. Unfortunately, some companies do not put in place the necessary stringent policies and procedures needed for your personal data to be secure.

Fortunately there are several ways you can take either when making online transactions or simply in your day-to-day computing life to safeguard your personal and financial data.

Keep your sensitive data off your computer -. Try your best to keep bank account numbers, passwords, etc off your computer. If you want to keep it in electronic format for easy access, that’s fine, simply buy a flash drive and store all the sensitive files there. Keep it in a safe place and if you need to refer to the documents, then just plug in your drive.

Avoid saving credit card info, etc on shopping sites - Many web sites today, such as Orbitz, Amazon, eBay, give you the option to save your credit card info so that you don’t have to type in all the information each time you want to buy something.

Do not use the same password for every last thing on the Internet - Make sure passwords are different a more complicated. Just throwing in a number or symbol at the end will make it hundreds of times hard for a person to crack your password!

Only connect to secure wireless networks if you can - If you have a home wireless network, secure it quickly! Connecting to non-secure wireless networks is asking for trouble. At the place I work, the sales people’s computers constantly have spyware on their computers because they connect to lots of insecure hotel wireless networks constantly. Avoid them at all costs!

Clear your browser’s cache after an online transaction - Sometimes your browser will save certain information you typed into forms, etc when you are online, so it’s always good to clear that after you’re done. Also, if you get that message sometimes from your browser asking you whether you want it to automatically save your passwords, etc, click NO. It’s another small pain, but it might help you one day!

Make sure your Anti-virus and Anti-spyware is up-to-date- This, of course, should be obvious. You can either buy excellent anti-virus programs like Kaspersky Anti-Virus or free programs like AVG, which is pretty good too. Either way, make sure you have something installed. However, most people usually stop there and don’t install any anti-spware programs. That’s a big mistake! Nowadays, spyware programs send your data to their creators so they can make money. Some good anti-spyware apps are Windows Defender, SpySweeper, SpywareBlaster, AdWare, and Spybot Search and Destroy.

Turn your computer off or on standby when you’re not using it

Avoid accessing financial information in public -prevent form logging on to check your bank balance when working from a coffee shop that offers wireless access. Although the systems are convenient but we do not know how powerful their firewalls are.

Use a secure Internet browser when you are online - Firefox is considered more secure than IE and that’s what a number of sites also have tested

Lock your computer at home and at the office - This is another one of those tips that most people don’t think about, especially at your office. If you leave for lunch and your computer is just on without a password-protected screen saver, what will stop a co-worker to get onto your computer and look through your My Documents, etc? It may not seem likely, but it can very well happen and it’s better to press CTRL-ALT-DELETE and press Lock Computer or put a password on your screen saver than have some co-worker copy your tax returns from last year!

Be careful who you give your computer to when it needs fixing – People simply trust technical support people too much. If someone is going to fix your computer, have then come over to your house and just watch as they do it. When you’re off in another room while they fix your computer, they can also be copying your entire hard drive for themselves.

Use advanced techniques like encryption, anonymous browsing, virtualization software, etc - Lastly, if you really want to do more than just the usual, you can encrypt your data, browse the Internet anonymously, or run IE or Firefox in a virtual environment. The advantage of the latter is that you can actually catch a virus or spyware program in the virtual environment and it won’t affect your operating system at all. You can read more by searching “virtualization software” in Google.

Remember, don’t be afraid of the Internet, it’s a great way to make your life easier and can be a safe place as long as you follow some simple common sense rules.



Monday, February 2, 2009

History and Evolution of E-Commerce

History of ecommerce dates back to the invention of the very old notion of "sell and buy", electricity, cables, computers, modems, and the Internet. At first, e-commerce appeared in the early 1970s when Electronic Fund Transfer (EFT) was introduced, which enables the banks and financial institutions to transfer large amount of money with associated businesses. A new model in business computerization was devised in the late 1970s that is Electronic Data Exchange (EDI). EDI enables inter-company exchanges of documents, such as order forms for suppliers, invoices, customs forms, reimbursement receipts, stock inventories and etc. History of ecommerce is unthinkable without Amazon and EBay which were among the first Internet companies to allow electronic transactions. Thanks to their founders we now have a handsome ecommerce sector and enjoy the buying and selling advantages of the Internet. Currently there are five largest and most famous worldwide Internet retailers: Amazon, Dell, Staples, Office Depot and Hewlett Packard. According to statistics, the most popular categories of products sold in the World Wide Web are music, books, computers, office supplies and other consumer electronics. By year 1992, the CompuServe offers online retail products to its customers. This has give people the first chance to buy things through their computers. The Netscape have arrived in year 1994 which providing users a simple browser to surf the internet and a safe online transaction technology which called Secure Sockets Layers. By the year of 1995, there have two biggest names in E-commerce are launched which are and By the year of 2000, the U.S. government extended the moratorium on the Internet taxes until at least year 2005. In year 2007, Fortune magazine have ranked Dell as the 34th largest company in the Fortune 500 list and 8th on its annual Top 20 list of the most successful and admired companies in the USA in recognition of the company’s business model.


Sunday, February 1, 2009

How e-commerce can reduce cycle time,improve employees' empowerment and faciliate customer support

Nowadays, E-commerce is wely used by either individual or companies to expand their size of markets and retain the attention of consumers by conducting business-to-business (B to B) or business to consumer (B to C) transactions through online.
E-commerce has brought many benefits in our daily life especially for companies which include reduce cycle time, improve empowerment of ewmployees, and facilitate customer support and others.
The cycle time may reduce if e-commerce takes place in business. Additionally, it is the electronic device that used by either internal or externally parties to communicate in order to reduce time to market which is the time from inception of idea to implementation. Competitive advantage may increase, decrease carrying and shrinkage costs, increase the speed of operations and improve cash flow if reduction of cycle time takes place in business transactions. In fact, employees are treating as important resource in one organization because they are able to contribute their ideas and energy into works.
Thus, empowerment to employees is essential especially at the front line due to it might bring impact to the performance of personnel and business. The productivity will improve if employees are empowered because employees are provided with computerized decision aids in order to make their own decisions.
E-commerce facilitates its customers’ support by providing consumers the opportunity and services to shop conveniently. It may lead to sales arise and improve the quality of services provided because customers could receive the goods and services directly without wastage of time.
In conclusion, e-commerce has brought many benefits in our daily life especially for organization. Thus, we have to use it wisely and expand it widely around the world.

revune cycle ---> Google, Ebay ,

There have 5 major types of revenue models. They are
 Advertising revenue model
 Subscription revenue model
 Transaction fee revenue model
 Sales revenue model
 Affiliate revenue model
Obvious differences between Google, and Ebay in revenue models, broadly: Advertising for Google, commissions for Ebay and sales minus costs for

The main source of Google’s revenue is from advertising. Google has multiple revenue models. One of the most familiar revenue models for Google is Google AdWords which offers pay-per-click (PPC) advertising, site. Others include Google AdSense, Google Answers, and Froogle.
First, AdWords, is a pay per click advertising (PPC) programme which allows advertiser shows relevant or related advertisement from what users searching for. It can be targeted advertising for both text and banner advertising. This program includes local, national, and international distribution.

Second, Google AdSense is an advertising serving program run by Google. Website owners can enroll in this program to enable text, image and, video advertisements on their sites.
Revenue is generated on a per-click or per-thousand-ads-displayed basis and the ads are administered by Google. AdSense program includes AdSense for search and AdSense for content.
Third, Google Answers is an Internet search and research service offered for a fee by Google. It was launched by Google in April 2002.
Instead of performing the search themselves users pay someone else to do the same. Customers ask questions, offer a price for an answer, and researchers answer them. Researchers are not Google employees. Prices for questions range from $2 to $200; after a question is answered, Google keeps 25% of the payment, sends the rest to the Researchers.
Fourth, Froogle is a service from Google that makes it easy to find information about products for sale online.Froogle is a price engine website launched by Google Inc.

Ebay is an online auction and shopping website in which people and businesses buy and sell goods and services worldwide. Millions of collectibles, appliances, computers, furniture, equipment, vehicles, and other miscellaneous items are listed, bought, and sold daily. EBay generates revenue from a number of fees such as insertion fees, promotional fees, and final value fees.

1. Insertion fees.
It exits when an item listed on Ebay, this nonrefundable fee is charged.

2. Promotional fees.
Are the fees that charged for additional listing options that help attract attention for an item, such as highlighted or bold listings.

3. Final value fees.
That is the commission that charged to the seller at the end of the auction.

Furthermore, Ebay generate revenue by sales revenue model through its subsidiary,, offers fixed price, person-to-person selling of goods, including books, CDs, videos and games, charging a 15% commission on completed sales.

Amazon Marketplace is’s fixed price online marketplace that allows sellers to offer their goods alongside Amazon’s offerings. Buyers can buy new and used items sold directly by a third party through using Amazon Marketplace. This sales strategy and program has been very profitable for Amazon charges a commission rate based on the sale price, a transaction fee, and a variable closing fee, which are sales revenue model and transaction fee revenue model.
Moreover, also generates revenue by Affiliate revenue model. Amazon was one of the first online businesses to set up an affiliate marketing program. AStore is an affiliate product which website owners can use to create an online store on their site. The store does not allow website owners to sell their own products directly. Website owners pick products from Amazon’s store and earn referral fees on the products purchased by their readers. The fee structure is currently the same as for the other affiliate links and ranges from 4% to 10% of the product price.

Possibly related posts: (automatically generated)

· August 2009: How Google beat Amazon and Ebay to the Semantic Web
· Google's Revenue Model